Cessation of life (Total 4034032 Papers Found)

  • Ling Yang,
  • World journal of gastroenterology
  • 2006
Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China, based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a sli ...
Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) plays a central role in cell-cycle regulation, transmitting DNA damage signals to downstream effectors of cell-cycle progression. In animals, ATR is an essential gene. Here, we find that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) atr-/- mutants were viable, fertile, and phenotypically wild-type in the absence of exogenous DNA damaging agents but exhibit altered expression of AtRNR1 (ribonucleotide reductase large subunit) and alteration of some damage ...
BACKGROUND Although the relation between hospital volume and surgical mortality is well established, for most procedures, the relative importance of the experience of the operating surgeon is uncertain. METHODS Using information from the national Medicare claims data base for 1998 through 1999, we examined mortality among all 474,108 patients who underwent one of eight cardiovascular procedures or cancer resections. Using nested regression models, we examined the relations between operative mo ...
Plasmodium falciparum can cause a diffuse encephalopathy known as cerebral malaria (CM), a major contributor to malaria associated mortality. Despite treatment, mortality due to CM can be as high as 30% while 10% of survivors of the disease may experience short- and long-term neurological complications. The pathogenesis of CM and other forms of severe malaria is multi-factorial and appear to involve cytokine and chemokine homeostasis, inflammation and vascular injury/repair. Identification of pr ...
Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, shows substantial anti-tumor activity in a variety of tumor cell lines, is in phase I, II, and III clinical trials and has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. The sequence of events leading to apoptosis following proteasome inhibition by bortezomib is unclear. Bortezomib effects on components of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were examined: generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in the mitochondrial ...
BACKGROUND Gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes, quality of life, and costs of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic gastric banding. STUDY DESIGN Between 2002 and 2007, 250 patients with a body mass index of 35 to 60 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to gastric bypass or gastric banding. After exclusion, 111 patients underwent gastric bypa ...
Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2007 (the most recent year for which data are available), >142,000 persons received a diagnosis for colorectal cancer and >53,000 persons died. Screening for colorectal cancer has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of and mortality from the disease. In 2008, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that persons aged 50-75 years at aver ...
BACKGROUND Drug-eluting coronary-artery stents have been shown to decrease restenosis and therefore the likelihood that additional procedures will be required after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the use of a drug-eluting stent in patients undergoing PCI for acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. METHODS We randomly assigned 619 patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation to receive either a paclitaxel-eluting stent ...
In 2003 there were 8,665 transplants of deceased donor kidneys for the approximately 60,000 patients waiting for such transplants in the United States. While waiting, 3,436 patients died. There were also 6,464 kidney transplants from living donors (Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients web site). Live donation is an option for kidneys, since healthy people have two and can remain healthy with one. While it is illegal to buy or sell organs, there have started to be kidney exchanges involvi ...
When threatened with predation, foraging prey can cease feeding and seek refuge or shift to feeding sites (microhabitats) offering increased safety. Predator-induced microhabitat shifts by large herbivores are of interest to ecologists because spatial patterns of foraging by these animals shape plant communities. The influence of predation risk on microhabitat use by large herbivores in marine systems remains poorly understood. We explored the relationship between microhabitat use by dugongs, Du ...
Titin is a giant protein responsible for muscle elasticity and provides a scaffold for several sarcomeric proteins, including the novel titin-binding protein MURF-1, which binds near the titin M-line region. Another unique feature of titin is the presence of a serine/threonine kinase-like domain at the edge of the M-line region of the sarcomere, for which no physiological catalytic function has yet been shown. To investigate the role(s) of the titin M-line segment, we have conditionally deleted ...
Our previous studies have shown that the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevents neuronal cell death caused by several neurotoxins. The present study sought to determine the neuroprotective effect of EGCG when it is administered after the induction of cell damage ('neurorescue'). In an attempt to imitate a progressive mode of death, PC12 cells were initially subjected to serum-starvation conditions for a period of 1 or 3 days before administration of EGCG (0.1-10 micr ...
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to compare contemporary surgical revascularization (coronary artery bypass graft surgery [CABG]) versus TAXUS Express (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with left main and/or 3-vessel disease. BACKGROUND Although the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing, the optimal coronary revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with complex multivessel disease remains controversia ...
BACKGROUND Definition of small for gestational age in various populations worldwide remains a challenge. References based on birthweight are deficient for preterm births, those derived from ultrasound estimates might not be applicable to all populations, and the individualised reference can be too complex to use in developing countries. Our aim was to create a generic reference for fetal weight and birthweight that overcame these deficiencies and could be readily adapted to local populations. ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in up to one-third of the general population and in the majority of patients with metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor resulting in hepatic fat accumulation. Recent evidence demonstrates NAFLD in turn exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and often precedes glucose intolerance. Once hepatic steatosis is established, other factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfuncti ...
PURPOSE Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T) have demonstrated encouraging results in early-phase clinical trials. Successful adaptation of CAR-T technology for CEA-expressing adenocarcinoma liver metastases, a major cause of death in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, has yet to be achieved. We sought to test intrahepatic delivery of anti-CEA CAR-T through percutaneous hepatic artery infusions (HAIs). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We conducted a phase I trial to test HAI of CAR-T in ...
  • Carsten Schradin,
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2013
Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredict ...
A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome i ...
The authors describe the technical results in 127 patients who underwent diagnostic gallbladder puncture and percutaneous cholecystostomy. The procedures were performed for a variety of indications including treatment of acute calculous or acalculous cholecystitis, drainage of obstructive jaundice or gallbladder perforation, percutaneous removal or dissolution of gallstones, diagnostic cholecystocholangiography, and gallbladder biopsy. Successful completion of the intended procedure was achieved ...
BACKGROUND Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common respiratory illness. METHODS We studied 249 infants and young children (mean age, eight months) who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia due to prematurity (n = 102), congenital heart disease (n = 87), or prematur ...
OBJECTIVE Inhibition of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) is currently being pursued as an insulin-independent treatment for diabetes; however, the behavioral and metabolic consequences of SGLT2 deletion are unknown. Here, we used a SGLT2 knockout mouse to investigate the effect of increased renal glucose excretion on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SGLT2 knockout mice were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet ( ...
BACKGROUND Endovascular repair (EVR) is emerging as first-line treatment for patients with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome of benign etiology, but data on its durability remain scarce. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and durability of EVR and compare results of EVR with open surgical reconstruction (OSR). METHODS Data from 70 consecutive patients undergoing treatment for benign SVC syndrome between November 1983 and November 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Th ...
In the setting of difficult dissection of Calot’s triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conversion is commonly advocated. An alternative approach aimed at preventing bile duct injury is laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy (LPC). The safety and efficacy of this procedure are unclear. A systematic review of the literature was performed independently by three researchers. The outcomes were conversion rate, hospital length of stay (LOS), bile duct injury, bile leak, symptomatic gallstones ...
BACKGROUND Metastasis is the primary cause of death in most human cancers, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning this multistep process is fundamental to identifying novel molecular targets and developing more effective therapies. OBJECTIVE/METHODS Here we review the role of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) in cancer and specifically in metastasis-related processes, and summarize the development of anticancer therapeutics selectively targeting this adapter protei ...
Previous research has disclosed different meanings of death, varieties of death anxiety, and hundreds of factors extracted from the uni- and multi-dimensional death anxiety scales. However, there have been no empirical studies to elucidate the reasons for death fear. The Reasons for Death Fear Scale (RDFS) was constructed and validated. It consists of 18 brief items, with good reliabilities ( > .8). Four factors of the RDFS were labeled Fear of Pain and Punishment, Fear of Losing Worldly Invo ...
The production of replacement reproductives in experimentally orphaned societies was investigated in Nasutitermes princeps (Desneux). From 1 to 180 replacement queens and multiple kings, all adultoids, were found in the 13 nests that were re-collected. Normal imagos, microimagos, or a mixture of the two forms were present, depending on colony composition at the time of orphaning. In colonies with alates, the corresponding forms were found as replacement reproductives. Where only young nymphs wer ...
Preamble It is becoming more apparent each day that despite a strong national commitment to excellence in health care, the resources and personnel are finite. It is, therefore, appropriate that the medical profession examine the impact of developing technology on the practice and cost of medical care. Such analysis, carefully conducted, could potentially have an impact on the cost of medical care without diminishing the effectiveness of that care. Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures with the f ...
Comparison was made of fetal breathing movements (FBM) and thoracic measurements in the prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. In 20 pregnancies with oligohydramnios due to premature and prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM) the presence or absence of FBM was assessed, the internal thoracic and cardiac circumferences were measured and the internal thoracic and lung areas calculated. All 5 infants with absent FBM died from pulmonary hypoplasia in the neonatal period and all 15 with FBM p ...
Gyrodactylus salaris is a freshwater, monogenean ecto-parasite of Atlantic-salmon. Infection of its natural host, the Baltic strain of Atlantic-salmon, is inapparent. G. salaris also can infect rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) permanently, and cause infection of < or =50 days in several other species. It is only on Atlantic stocks of Atlantic-salmon (Salmo salar) that the parasite multiplies unchecked by an immune response, causes death in juveniles and dramatic reductions in wild populati ...
Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug, mostly documented to cause cell death through the formation of DNA adducts. In patients, it exhibits a range of short-term side effects that are unlikely to be related to its genomic action. As cisplatin has been shown to modify membrane properties in different cell systems, we investigated its effects on mechanosensitive ion transporters and channels. We show here that cisplatin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of the mechanosensitive Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE-1 ...
Lung cancer is the second most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Moreover, despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the death rate from lung cancer remains high and the reported overall five-year survival rate is only 15%. Thus, novel treatments for this devastating disease are urgently needed. Chemokines, a family of 48 chemotactic cytokines interacts with their 7 transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, to guide immune ce ...
Salicylate intoxication remains a common problem in Britain; about 10 percent of adult hospital admissions for deliberate self-poisoning involve these drugs. Accidental salicylate poisoning in children has been considerably reduced since the introduction of child-resistant containers. In the United Kingdom, the annual number of salicylate-related deaths has fallen slightly between 1967 and 1980. Diagnosis of salicylate intoxication is made from patient history, circumstantial evidence, and commo ...
Precise control over activation of the apoptotic machinery is critical for development, tissue homeostasis and disease. In Drosophila, the decision to trigger apoptosis--whether in response to developmental cues or to DNA damage--converges on transcription of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) antagonists reaper, hid and grim. Here we describe a parallel process that regulates the sensitivity to, rather than the execution of, apoptosis. This process establishes developmental windows that are p ...
PURPOSE This article describes an ex vivo method to recondition and transplant rejected donor lungs. DESCRIPTION A 19-year-old man was brain dead after a traffic accident. A roentgenogram showed bilateral lung contusion. He had ongoing intratracheal bleeding. After optimizing ventilator treatment and suctioning the airways, PaO2 was 9 kPa (67.5 mm Hg) on FiO2 = 0.7. The lungs were rejected by all transplantation centers in the Nordic countries. We harvested the lungs for research. The right lu ...
PURPOSE To evaluate the 6th edition of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to search for ways to improve the system. METHODS AND MATERIALS We performed a retrospective review of data from 749 biopsy-proven nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. All patients had undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography and had received radiotherapy as their primary treatment. RESULTS The T stage, N stage, an ...
PURPOSE (a) To assess the increased risk of death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a group of patients treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD) with radiation therapy (RT) as the primary treatment. (b) To quantify the dose response of IHD using a biophysical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patient material consisted of 157 patients diagnosed for HD between 1972 and 1985 who received RT as the primary treatment at Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital. The general population formed the control group. ...
Ischemic heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death worldwide. A large proportion of individuals at high 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event live in low-income and middle-income countries, and the large majority of all cardiovascular events occur in developing countries. A large amount of evidence supports the use of pharmacological treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular death in this population, including antiplatelet drugs, beta blockers, lipid-lowering agents and angi ...
Chronic active EBV disease (CAEBV) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by markedly elevated levels of antibody to EBV or EBV DNA in the blood and EBV RNA or protein in lymphocytes in tissues. We present our experience with CAEBV during the last 28 years, including the first 8 cases treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the United States. Most cases of CAEBV have been reported from Japan. Unlike CAEBV in Japan, where EBV is nearly always found in T or natural killer ...
The hypothesis was tested that human donor livers with higher ATP content and energy charge achieve better results after hepatic transplantation. Biopsies were obtained from 25 donor livers immediately prior to implantation and analyzed for adenine nucleotides using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results were correlated with organ histology, transplant function and outcome. Significantly higher concentrations of ATP (4.22 +/- 2.87 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.69 nmoles per mg protein, p less than ...
The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. ...
PURPOSE Although sutureless anastomosis by use of the biofragmentable anastomotic ring is now accepted as an alternative to conventional manual sutured or stapled methods in elective enterocolic surgery, its applicability to emergency enterocolic surgery has not yet been established. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether the biofragmentable anastomotic ring anastomosis in emergency enterocolic surgery could be performed as safely as in elective surgery or as emergency handse ...
A locus for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), also known as Byler disease, has been mapped to a 19 cM region of chromosome 18 by a search for shared segments, using patients from the Amish kindred in which the disorder was originally described. A similar liver disease, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), recently has been mapped to the same region, suggesting that these two diseases are caused by mutations in the same gene. Although PFIC and BRIC are clinically ...
Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules and it also promotes deleterious processes such as cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are the primary functions of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this report, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable paralytic disorder primarily typified by the selective and progressive degeneration of motoneurons in the brain and spinal cord. ALS causes muscle wasting and atrophy, resulting eventually in respiratory failure and death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone with diverse biological functions that include protection against neuronal damage. The detrimental consequences of vitamin D dietary deficiency have been ...
Apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many viral infections. Despite this fact, the apoptotic pathways triggered during viral infections are incompletely understood. We now provide the first detailed characterization of the pattern of caspase activation following infection with a cytoplasmically replicating RNA virus. Reovirus infection of HEK293 cells results in the activation of caspase-8 followed by cleavage of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid. This initiates the activation of ...
  • Bart Sas,
  • Veterinary and human toxicology
  • 1989
In a herd of cattle located in central Hungary, illness and subsequent death of cows was observed. The cause of these losses was molybdenum-induced secondary copper deficiency. The origin of the environmental molybdenum was used motor oil containing molybdenum bisulfide as an additive. This split motor oil polluted the cow's pasture located on the side of a railway bed near the farm. Before the illnesses and deaths, the animals were grazing for at least 2 weeks in the contaminated area. The ill ...
The safety and efficacy of endoluminal stenting in treating atherosclerotic vertebral artery disease was evaluated in 38 vessels in 32 patients. Indications for revascularization included diplopia (n = 4), blurred vision (n = 4), dizziness (n = 23), transient ischemic attacks (n = 4), drop attack (n = 1), gait disturbance (n = 1), headache (n = 2), and asymptomatic critical stenosis (n = 1). Success (< 20% residual diameter stenosis, without stroke or death) was achieved in all 32 patients (1 ...
BACKGROUND Clinical responses to ipilimumab are variable in terms of onset, magnitude and duration. Upfront identification of patients who are more likely or unlikely to benefit from treatment is a major need. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prospectively collected data from 720 advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg within the Italian expanded access program were analyzed. The derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) was calculated from baseline peripheral blood cell counts, and ...
Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contr ...