Resolution-phase macrophage population orchestrates active dampening of the inflammation by secreting anti-inflammatory and proresolving products including interleukin (IL)-10 and lipid mediators (LMs). We investigated the effects of both human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) on mature human regulatory macrophages (Mregs). The cytokines and LMs were determined from cell culture media of Mregs cultivated with MSCs and MSC-EVs. In addition, the alterations in the expression of cell surface markers and the phagocytic ability of Mregs were investigated. Our novel findings indicate that both MSC coculture and MSC-EVs downregulated the production of IL-23 and IL-22 enhancing the anti-inflammatory phenotype of Mregs and amplifying proresolving properties. The levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were substantially upregulated in MSC coculture media, which may endorse proresolving LM class switching. In addition, our results manifest, for the first time, that MSC-EVs mediate the Mreg phenotype change via PGE2. These data suggest that both human MSC and MSC-EVs may potentiate tolerance-promoting proresolving phenotype of human Mregs.
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