Treating drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is particularly challenging in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence settings. Neither antiretroviral resistance testing nor viral load monitoring is widely available in sub-Saharan Africa, and antiretroviral resistance can complicate the clinical management for DR-TB/HIV coinfected patients. We describe six cases of antiretroviral resistance in DR-TB patients with HIV coinfection in Lesotho. Two patients died before or immediately after antiretroviral resistance was detected by genotyping; the remaining four patients were switched to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Favorable DR-TB treatment outcomes in coinfected patients require successful management of their HIV infection, including treatment with an effective ART regimen. Coinfected patients undergoing DR-TB treatment may require closer monitoring of their response to ART, including routine viral load testing, to ensure that they receive an effective ART regimen concurrent with DR-TB treatment.
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